5th Generation Air Dominance Fighter
Using Service (US):
Air Force (USAF)
In Service - No new aircraft planned.
The Lockheed Martin/Boeing
F-22 Raptor is a twin-engine single-seat air dominance fighter. It is a first-of-a-kind multi-mission fighter aircraft that combines stealth,
supercruise, advanced maneuverability, and integrated avionics to make it the world's most capable combat aircraft.
The Raptor is a fifth generation fighter aircraft and is designed to penetrate enemy airspace and achieve
a first-look, first-kill capability against multiple targets. The aircraft made its combat debut in Syria on September 22, 2014.
The F-22 has unprecedented survivability and lethality, ensuring the joint forces have freedom from attack, freedom to maneuver,
and freedom to attack. The U.S. Government has prohibited the sale of F-22 aircraft to any foreign nation.
The F-22 is powered by two Pratt & Whitney F119-PW-100 afterburning turbofan engines, each providing 35,000 pounds of thrust. Supercruise (the ability to operate at supersonic speed without afterburning) gives the aircraft exceptional combat performance without compromising mission range. The aircraft's Northrop Grumman AN/APG-77 AESA radar system is able to detect enemy aircraft radar at distances of up to 285 miles (460 km). The AN/APG-77 system itself exhibits a very low radar cross section. The F-22's avionics package also includes the BAE Systems AN/ALR-94 radar warning receiver (RWR), the Lockheed Martin AN/AAR-56 MLD missile warning system (MWS), and BAE Systems AN/ALE-52 countermeasures dispenser. The cockpit features six full colour multifunction displays, including the 8x8" primary display from Kaiser Electronics (now Rockwell Collins). A BAE Systems head-up display (HUD) provides target status, weapon status, and weapon envelopes data and shoot cues. Also, a video camera records data for the HUD for post-mission analysis. The F-22 is equipped with the ACES II ejection seat system manufactured by Goodrich (now United Technologies). Goodrich also supplied the aircraft's landing gear.
In the production of the F-22, Lockheed Martin was responsible for program management, the integrated forebody (nose section) and forward fuselage (including the cockpit and inlets); the center fuselage; the leading edges of the wings; fins and stabilators; flaps; ailerons; landing gear; stores management; integrated navigation and electronic warfare systems; communications, navigation, and identification systems; the weapon support system; and final assembly of the aircraft. At its facilities in Seattle, Washington, Boeing built the wings and aft fuselage and was responsible for avionics integration, 70% of mission software, the training system, and life-support and fire-protection systems.
The F-22 is mainly made of titanium alloys and composites. Radar absorbent materials are used to reduce the aircraft's radar signature. Also, the shape of the F-22 makes it more difficult to detect on radar. The F-22's structural weight is comprised of 39% titanium alloys (highest in any U.S. aircraft design since the SR-71A), 24% composites, 16% aluminium alloys, and 1% thermoplastics - with other materials making up the remaining 20%. The wings are made of 42% titanium, 35% composites, and 23% aluminum and other materials (by structural weight). The design life of the F-22 is 8,000 hours, which equates to a service life of about 22 years at 360 flying hours per year.
The Advanced Tactical Fighter program (which would eventually bring about the F-22) entered the demonstration and validation phase in 1986. The prototype aircraft YF-22 and YF-23 completed their first flights in 1990 and the YF-22 was later selected as the best design. Engineering and manufacturing development efforts began in 1991 with contracts awarded to Lockheed Martin and Boeing for the airframe and Pratt & Whitney for the engines. Flight testing began in 1997 (first flight on September 7, 1997) and in 2001, the F-22 program was approved for low-rate initial production (LRIP). The first production F-22 was delivered to the Air Force in 2002. Initial operational and test evaluation was completed in 2004 and the following year, the program went into full rate production. The F-22 achieved Initial Operational Capability (IOC) in December 2005.
In December 2011, the 187th and final production F-22 Raptor came off the production line at Lockheed Martin's facility in Marietta, Georgia and was delivered to the Air Force on May 2, 2012. With the final aircraft complete, the F-22 production line will be shut down. Including flight test and initial production aircraft, a grand total of 195 F-22s have been built. As of September 2013, of the 182 aircraft in the Air Force inventory, 20 are assigned to Air National Guard units.
The F-22 program has struggled with an issue in the pilot oxygen supply system, which has been blamed for a series of incidents in which pilots struggled to breath and experienced dizziness and blackouts. In the worst incident, Air Force pilot Capt. Jeff Haney lost his life on November 16, 2010, when his F-22 crashed near Joint Base Elmendorf-Richardson in Alaska. To fix these problems, the Air Force is installing new valves on the pilot life-support system.
Lockheed Martin is currently under contract to modernize the F-22, which includes the development of system upgrades, additional capabilities and performance enhancements. The contract ceiling is $6.9 billion and covers work until February 2023.
Increment 3.2B is a high priority modification program for the F-22.
Increment 3.2B will integrate the newest air-to-air intercept missiles AIM-9X
and AIM-120D AMRAAM,
further improve the electronic protection capability over Increment 3.2A, and enhance the F-22's
geolocation capability from the Increment 3.1 baseline with the addition of the Geolocation 2 capability.
Increment 3.2B will include the Enhanced Stores Management System (ESMS), as well as, Common Weapon Engagement Zone (Common WEZ),
an Intra-Flight Datalink (IFDL) improvement to increase IFDL bandwidth and enable cooperative functions required to realize Increment 3.2B capabilities.
In addition to the above, Increment 3.2B will develop, certify and integrate a new platform operational flight program to ensure the system interoperability and performance of all increment-level developments. Increment 3.2B retrofits F-22 Block 30 and 35 aircraft with hardware to host Increment 3.2B capabilities including the Enhanced Stores Management System (ESMS) Common Split Bus, AIM-120D, AIM-9X, Electronic Protection enhancements, IFDL improvements, and Geolocate 2.0.
The F-22 is equipped with a General Dynamics M61-A2 Vulcan 20mm six-barreled gatling gun and has four under-wing hardpoints and three internal weapons bays. The aircraft carries AIM-9M/X Sidewinder air-to-air missiles, AIM-120 AMRAAM air-to-air missiles, GBU-32 Joint Direct Attack Munitions (JDAM), and GBU-39/40 Small Diameter Bombs. For more detail, see specifications below.
The F-22 is no longer in production. In 2007, the unit cost of the F-22A was $136.2 million ($148.7 million flyaway cost or $179.7 million incl. support costs). The airframe's cost was $87.74 million, the F119-PW-100 engine cost $10.03 million, and the avionics cost $28.36 million.
The F-22 provides an enhanced U.S. air superiority capability against projected threats and will replace the F-15 Eagle.
FY 2015 continues critical F-22 modernization through incremental capability upgrades and key reliability and maintainability efforts. Procurement funds in the amount of $217.9 million have been provided for F-22 modifications, support equipment and spares. The primary modifications in FY 2015 are RAMMP, F119 Engine Modifications, the SRP, and Increment 3.2.
FY 2016 Procurement funds in the amount of $199.5 million have been requested for F-22 modifications,
support equipment and spares. FY 16 continues critical planned modernization for F-22 aircraft
through incremental capability upgrades and key reliability and maintainability improvements.
Continues development and test of advanced air superiority capabilities to include integration of the AIM-120D and AIM-9X,
additional electronic protection, and improved geolocation. Continues fielding of Increment 3.1 advanced Global Strike capabilities
such as Small Diameter Bomb I, Synthetic Aperture Radar and Geolocation, and procurement to support 3.2B retrofit in FY 2016.
For more information, please find downloadable budget data in PDF format below.
Sources: U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), Lockheed Martin Corp.,
The Boeing Company, BAE Systems, Pratt & Whitney, and Northrop Grumman.
Last Update: June 22, 2015.
By Joakim Kasper Oestergaard /// (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Lockheed Martin: F-22 Raptor
Northrop Grumman: AN/APG-77 AESA Radar
Lockheed Martin: AN/AAR-56 MLD MWS
General Dynamics: M61-A2 20mm Vulcan Gatling Gun
YouTube: F-22 Raptor | YouTube Videos
Fact Sheet: Lockheed Martin | F-22 Fact Sheet
Product Card: Lockheed Martin | Raptor Product Card
F-22A U.S. Defense Budget Charts:
|Purchases of F-22 Aircraft (USAF-2014)||Modification of F-22 Aircraft (USAF)||Increment 3.2B Mods (USAF)|
|F-22A Squadrons RDT&E (USAF)||RDT&E: F-22 Mod Incr. 3.2B (USAF)||Spares and Repair Parts (USAF)|
Primary Function: Air dominance multi-role fighter