HMMVW (Humvee)

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Product Type:

Lightweight four-wheel-drive (4WD) tactical vehicle

Using Service (US):

Army, Air Force, Navy and Marine Corps.

Program Status:

Recapitalization, Upgrades and Sustainment

Prime Contractor:

AM General, LLC


About the HMMWV:

The High Mobility Multi-purpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV) is a lightweight, four-wheel-drive (4WD), diesel-powered, tactical vehicle. It uses a common chassis and can carry a wide variety of weapons, including machine guns and tube-launched, optically tracked, wire-guided (TOW) anti-armor missile launchers.

The HMMWV has a low profile (6 feet tall), is 7 feet wide and 15 feet long. The vehicle has high ground clearance (16 inches), which allows for excellent mobility. The proportions of the HMMWV makes for a stable, "road-hugging" vehicle that is very hard to roll over. The HMMWV employs a high-grade alloy steel frame. The body of the HMMVW base variant is made of aluminum, which reduces the vehicle's weight and helps prevent corrosion. The body is designed to flex to accommodate off-road use. The HMMWV A2 series vehicles are powered by a General Engine Products (an AM General subsidiary) V8 6.5-liter Optimizer 6500 diesel engine with 160 shp and can reach speeds of more than 70 mph. The engine is coupled to a 4-speed automatic transmission and full-time 4WD transfer case. The HMMWV has power steering and power-assisted hydraulic disc brakes. The HMMWV uses military 37x12.5 radial tires with low-profile "runflat" devices. Some HMMWVs are equipped with an optional central tire inflation system (CTIS), which enables the driver to adjust tire pressure from his seat "on the go" to adapt to changing terrain conditions, thus allowing for maximum off-road mobility. The vehicles have either a 1+1 or 2+2 seating configuration depending on the model. The HMMWV uses a 12/24-volt electrical system and comes with a 25-gallon fuel tank.

The different HMMWV configurations (cargo/troop carriers, weapons carriers, ambulances and shelter carriers) share a common chassis, engine and transmission with a total of 44 interchangeable parts used in more than one position. This results in fewer training hours needed for mechanics. Also, the HMMWV simplified supply, maintenance and logistics system (essentially one set of common parts for 15 configurations) reduces life-cycle costs.

The newest HMMWV is the Expanded Capability Vehicle (ECV), which is an up-armored version and the 4th generation HMMWV. It is designed to provide greater protection without sacrificing mobility and performance. The ECVs are heavier than the A2 HMMWVs but also have more powerful 190 hp engines vs. 160 hp for the A2 series.

The U.S. Navy and U.S. Air Force are also using the HMMWV + the Special Operations Command (SOCOM) Ground Mobility Vehicle (GMV) 1.0 is a special forces modified HMMWV M1165A1/B3.

HMMWVs are air transportable and droppable and can be sling-loaded by military helicopters (CH-47 and CH-53 carries two - UH-60 carries one). Three HMMWVs can be carried inside a C-130 Hercules, four in a C-130J-30, ten in a C-17 Globemaster III, and as many as 15 in a C-5 Galaxy/Super Galaxy. Also, in combat conditions, the HMMWV can be airdropped using the Low Altitude Parachute Extraction System.

In the late 1970s, the U.S. Army decided it needed a new and better vehicle to replace the M561 Gama Goat, the M151-series Jeep, and civilian trucks adapted for military use. The Army wanted a new jack-of-all-trades light tactical vehicle and, in 1979, issued a draft specification for a new tactical vehicle to replace all tactical vehicles in the 1/4-ton to 1 1/4-ton range. AM General won the bid to build the HMMWV and was awarded the initial production contract for 2,334 HMMWVs in March 1983. This was the first increment of a five-year contract for almost 55,000 vehicles. By March 1995, approximately 100,000 HMMWVs had been built with the total tally, as of 2012, standing at 281,000 vehicles produced.

The U.S. Army is currently only purchasing the M997A3 HMMWV Ambulance. A new vehicle, the Joint Light Tactical Vehicle (JLTV), will replace the HMMWV. The advent in Iraq and Afghanistan of remotely-controlled Improvised Explosive Devices (IED) took its toll on the fleet of unarmored flat-bottom HMMWVs, thus creating a need for a new light tactical vehicle with better protection. The HMMWV was never designed to withstand IED or mine blasts. HMMWV up-armoring through the addition of armor plates has provided increased crew protection, however, the increased weight has reduced the vehicle's payload capacity, maneuverability, off-road mobility, and air transportability. The JLTV is currently in the low rate initial production (LRIP) phase and purchases commenced in FY 2015.


Armament/TOW missile carrier HMMWVs can be equipped with the M240 7.62mm machine gun, the M2 .50 caliber machine gun, the Mk 19 40mm grenade launcher, or the Raytheon BGM-71 TOW II anti-tank missile system.


To provide a common light tactical vehicle capability.

FY 2020 & FY 2021 - HMMWV DoD Program:

This data is available in Forecast International's U.S. Defense Budget Forecast, a comprehensive analytical database containing historical and forecast budget figures, year-to-year funding comparisons, congressional budget markups, program justification documents, and much more.

Source: U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) and AM General, LLC.

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