MRAP Family of Vehicles

Product Type:

Family of Armored Wheeled Vehicles

Using Service (US):

Army and Marine Corps (USMC)

Program Status:

Upgrades and Sustainment

Prime Contractors:

Oshkosh Corporation (M-ATV)
Navistar Defense (MaxxPro)

The M-ATV MRAP Vehicle

About the MRAP Vehicles:

The Mine Resistant Ambush Protected (MRAP) vehicles are a family of armored wheeled military vehicles used by the U.S. Army and U.S. Marine Corps. The MRAP Family was designed to provide multi-mission vehicle platforms capable of mitigating Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs). IEDs have caused many casualties in the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan and the MRAP Family was developed to counter this new threat. Also, MRAP vehicles provide protection against underbody mines and small arms fire threats.

The U.S. military already began testing MRAP vehicles in FY2000 well before 9/11 and the Global War on Terror. A few dozen were in fact in service in Iraq and Afghanistan prior to the start of the MRAP program. Unfortunately, nearly two years passed from the time of the first formal field request for MRAPs until validated requirements were obtained.

At one point, IEDs accounted for approximately 70% of troop casualties in Iraq. The Government Accountability Office found that: "Beginning in June 2003, IED incidents targeting coalition forces began to escalate from 22 per month to over 600 per month in June 2004. In June 2006, these incidents reached more than 2,000 per month. At one point in 2006, coalition forces in Iraq were experiencing almost 100 IEDs per day."

The vast Majority of MRAPs were purchased by the U.S. military in fiscal years 2007 and 2008. From FY2009, only the MRAP M-ATV is being procured.

MRAPs can be transported by the C-17 Globemaster III and the C-5 Galaxy/Super Galaxy.

All MRAP Variants:

The U.S. Military is operating and sustaining four vehicle categories, including MRAP Category I, MRAP Category II, MRAP Category III, and the MRAP-All Terrain Vehicle (M-ATV). To date, seven different vehicle designs have been purchased from five different contractors, including BAE Systems, Force Protection Industries (FPI), General Dynamics Land Systems (GDLS), NAVISTAR Defense, and Oshkosh Corporation.

The Category I MRAP Mine Resistant Utility Vehicle (MRUV) is used for urban combat operations and as ambulance. Cat-I includes the BAE Systems TVS Caiman, the GDLS RG-31A2, the FPI Cougar 4x4, and the NAVISTAR Defense MaxxPro. Vehicles in the Cat-I class transport up to 6 personnel, have curb weights of 7-15 tons, and a per unit cost between $300,000 and $550,000 (base models).

The Category II MRAP Joint Explosive Ordnance Disposal Rapid Response Vehicle (JERRV) is used as convoy lead vehicle, troop transport, ambulance, and utility vehicle. Cat-II includes the FPI Cougar 6x6 and BAE Systems RG-33L. Vehicles in the Cat-II class transport up to 10 personnel, have curb weights 15-25 tons, and a per unit cost between $540,000 and $644,000 (base models).

The Category III MRAP is used for Mine/IED clearance operations and explosive ordnance disposal. Cat-III only includes the FPI Buffalo MRV, which transports up to 13 personnel, weighs in at 25 tons and the base model has a unit cost of $856,000. Only the Marine Corps acquired Cat-III MRAPs.

The Oshkosh MRAP-All Terrain Vehicle (M-ATV) 4x4 is the newest variant in the MRAP Family. It offers the same level of armored protection as previous MRAPs but with better mobility. In Afghanistan, MRAPs had struggled with the rocky terrain, thus creating the need for a more mobile vehicle. The M-ATV incorporates the TAK-4 independent suspension system, which is designed to operate in the most extreme conditions enabling it to take rubble and rocks head on. The M-ATV is available in a base variant as well as in special forces, ambulance, multi-mission, base upgrade, and cargo variants. In October 2009, the first M-ATVs arrived in Afghanistan. The M-ATV has a crew of five including the gunner and is powered by a 7.2 liter Caterpillar C7 diesel engine with 370 hp. It can travel at speeds up to 65 mph with a range of 320 miles.

Enduring Variants:

In the MRAP Study III, the Army approved the M-ATV, the MaxxPro Dash ISS and MaxxPro Plus Ambulance ISS as the three enduring MRAP variants. All other MRAP variants listed above will be divested. The enduring inventory holds 8,585 MRAP vehicles. The Army is currently upgrading these with various retrofit kits to maximize capability. Safety upgrades are the highest priority.


The M-ATV MRAP can be equipped with an M240 7.62mm machine gun, or an Mk 19 40mm grenade launcher, or the Raytheon BGM-71 TOW II anti-tank missile system.

Price/Unit Cost:

The unit cost of the Oshkosh M-ATV was $470,000 in FY 2010.


The MRAP Family of Vehicles provides multi-mission vehicular platforms capable of mitigating Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs), underbody mines, and small arms fire threats, which are currently the greatest casualty producers in Overseas Contingency Operations (OCO).

FY 2014 MRAP DoD Program:

The MRAP enduring fleet quantity of 8,585 includes the MRAP All-Terrain Vehicle (M-ATV), the MaxxPro Dash and the MaxxPro Plus Ambulance as the Army's three MRAP enduring variants. Funding will upgrade all 8,585 vehicles with various retrofit kits in order to maximize capability with safety upgrades as the highest priority. FY 2014 procurement dollars in the amount of $373.2M will upgrade the MRAP enduring variants M-ATV, MaxxPro DASH, and MaxxPro Plus Ambulances. Upgrades/activities will include, but are not limited to: 1) Safety; 2) Suspension; 3) Capability set network communication equipment/integration; 4) Technical manual development; 5) Converting MaxxPro Ambulances to MaxxPro DASH gun trucks; 6) Converting MaxxPro Long Wheel Base vehicles to MaxxPro Plus Ambulances; and 7) Produce/procure materiel solutions to evolving threats in response to urgent warfighter requests. These upgrades will also consolidate variant types and reduce MRAP fleet sustainment costs. This request complies with the DoD's funding guidance for the MRAP OCO funding request to include costs to retrograde and repair vehicles to its original or upgraded capability. M-ATV upgrades will be conducted at Space and Naval Warfare System Command (SPAWAR) and Ft. Bliss, Texas. MaxxPro upgrades and conversions will be conducted at either Livorno or Red River Army Depot.

FY 2015 MRAP DoD Program:

FY 2015 base procurement funds in the amount of $14.7 million provides initial contractor logistics support. FY 2015 OCO procurement funds in the amount of $197.0 million will standardize the configurations for the MRAP enduring variants M-ATV, MaxxPro DASH Independent Suspension System (ISS), and MaxxPro Long Wheel Base Ambulances, fund total package fielding to units, and convert MRAPs (RG31 and RG33L+) to Route Clearance Vehicles. These efforts will baseline the M-ATV fleet to the Low Rate Initial Production (LRIP) 22 configuration and baseline the MaxxPro Dash fleet to the LRIP 21 configuration plus MaxxPro survivability enhancements.

For more information, click to see the Complete FY 2015 Army MRAP Modifications Budget.

Source: U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), Oshkosh Corporation, and School of Public Policy - University of Maryland.

Specifications Armament DoD Spending FY2015 Budget

Last Update: October 23, 2014.

By Joakim Kasper Oestergaard Balle /// (

External Resources:

Oshkosh Defense: M-ATV

YouTube: M-ATV | YouTube Videos

Fact Sheet: Not Available

Other Info: MRAP Case Study (PDF)

Casualty Rates:

MRAPs: 6%
M1 Abrams Tank: 15%
Up-Armored HMMWV: 22%

MRAP U.S. Defense Budget Charts:

DoD Spending on the MRAP Family of Vehicles in FY 2011, FY 2012, FY 2013, FY 2014 and FY 2015
DoD Upgrades of MRAP Vehicles in FY 2011, FY 2012, FY 2013, FY 2014 and FY 2015
Defense Budget Data

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DoD Spending, Procurement and RDT&E: FY 2011/12/13 + Budget for FYs 2014 + 2015

DoD Defense Spending, Procurement, Modifications, Spares, and RDT&E for the MRAP Family of Vehicles

Download Official U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) Budget Data:

Purchases of MRAP Vehicles - FY2013 (ARMY) Modification of MRAP Vehicles (ARMY)

Specifications: Oshkosh M-ATV Base Variant

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Primary Function: Multi-mission armored vehicle
Prime Contractor: Oshkosh Corporation
Power Plant: 1x Caterpillar C7 7.2L diesel engine with 370 hp
Transmission: Allison 6-speed automatic
Suspension: TAK-4 independent
Length: 20.5 ft (6.25 m)
Height: 8.7 ft (2.65 m)
Width: 8.2 ft (2.50 m)
Weight (Curb): 27,500 lbs/13.75 tons (12,470 kg)
Power-to-Weight Ratio: 26.91 hp/ton (29.67 hp/metric ton)
Payload: 4,000 lbs (1,814 kg)
Speed: Max: 65 mph (105 km/h)
Acceleration: Unknown
Range: 320 miles (515 km)
Crew: Five (driver, gunner and three troops)
Price/Unit Cost: $470,000 (in FY 2010)
Deployed: October 2009

1x Mk 19 40mm grenade launcher or
1x Raytheon BGM-71 TOW II anti-tank missile system or
1x M240 7.62mm machine gun.

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