MRAP Family of Vehicles

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Product Type:

Family of Armored Wheeled Vehicles

Using Service (US):

Army and Marine Corps (USMC)

Program Status:

Upgrades and Sustainment

Prime Contractors:

Oshkosh Corporation (M-ATV)
Navistar Defense (MaxxPro)

The M-ATV MRAP Vehicle

About the MRAP Vehicles:

The Mine Resistant Ambush Protected (MRAP) vehicles are a family of armored wheeled military vehicles used by the U.S. Army and U.S. Marine Corps. The MRAP Family was designed to provide multi-mission vehicle platforms capable of mitigating Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs). IEDs have caused many casualties in the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan and the MRAP Family was developed to counter this new threat. Also, MRAP vehicles provide protection against underbody mines and small arms fire threats.

The U.S. military already began testing MRAP vehicles in FY2000 well before 9/11 and the Global War on Terror. A few dozen were in fact in service in Iraq and Afghanistan prior to the start of the MRAP program. Unfortunately, nearly two years passed from the time of the first formal field request for MRAPs until validated requirements were obtained.

At one point, IEDs accounted for approximately 70% of troop casualties in Iraq. The Government Accountability Office found that: "Beginning in June 2003, IED incidents targeting coalition forces began to escalate from 22 per month to over 600 per month in June 2004. In June 2006, these incidents reached more than 2,000 per month. At one point in 2006, coalition forces in Iraq were experiencing almost 100 IEDs per day."

The vast Majority of MRAPs were purchased by the U.S. military in fiscal years 2007 and 2008. MRAPs can be air transported by the C-17 Globemaster III and the C-5 Galaxy/Super Galaxy.

All MRAP Variants:

The U.S. Military is operating and sustaining four vehicle categories, including MRAP Category I, MRAP Category II, MRAP Category III, and the MRAP-All Terrain Vehicle (M-ATV). To date, seven different vehicle designs have been purchased from five different contractors, including BAE Systems, Force Protection Industries (FPI), General Dynamics Land Systems (GDLS), NAVISTAR Defense, and Oshkosh Corporation.

The Category I MRAP Mine Resistant Utility Vehicle (MRUV) is used for urban combat operations and as ambulance. Cat-I includes the BAE Systems TVS Caiman, the GDLS RG-31A2, the FPI Cougar 4x4, and the NAVISTAR Defense MaxxPro. Vehicles in the Cat-I class transport up to 6 personnel, have curb weights of 7-15 tons, and a per unit cost between $300,000 and $550,000 (base models).

The Category II MRAP Joint Explosive Ordnance Disposal Rapid Response Vehicle (JERRV) is used as convoy lead vehicle, troop transport, ambulance, and utility vehicle. Cat-II includes the FPI Cougar 6x6 and BAE Systems RG-33L. Vehicles in the Cat-II class transport up to 10 personnel, have curb weights 15-25 tons, and a per unit cost between $540,000 and $644,000 (base models).

The Category III MRAP is used for Mine/IED clearance operations and explosive ordnance disposal. Cat-III only includes the FPI Buffalo MRV, which transports up to 13 personnel, weighs in at 25 tons and the base model has a unit cost of $856,000. Only the Marine Corps acquired Cat-III MRAPs.

The Oshkosh MRAP-All Terrain Vehicle (M-ATV) 4x4 is the newest variant in the MRAP Family. It offers the same level of armored protection as previous MRAPs but with better mobility. In Afghanistan, MRAPs had struggled with the rocky terrain, thus creating the need for a more mobile vehicle. The M-ATV incorporates the TAK-4 independent suspension system, which is designed to operate in the most extreme conditions enabling it to take rubble and rocks head on. The M-ATV is available in a base variant as well as in special forces, ambulance, multi-mission, base upgrade, and cargo variants. In October 2009, the first M-ATVs arrived in Afghanistan. The M-ATV has a crew of five including the gunner and is powered by a 7.2 liter Caterpillar C7 diesel engine with 370 hp. It can travel at speeds up to 65 mph with a range of 320 miles.

Enduring Variants:

In the MRAP Study III, the Army approved the M-ATV, the MaxxPro Dash ISS and MaxxPro Plus Ambulance ISS as the three enduring MRAP variants. All other MRAP variants listed above will be divested. The enduring inventory holds 8,222 MRAP vehicles. The Army is currently upgrading these with various retrofit kits to maximize capability. Safety upgrades are the highest priority.


The M-ATV MRAP can be equipped with an M240 7.62mm machine gun, or an Mk 19 40mm grenade launcher, or the Raytheon BGM-71 TOW II anti-tank missile system.


The MRAP Family of Vehicles provides multi-mission vehicular platforms capable of mitigating Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs), underbody mines, and small arms fire threats.

FY 2020 & FY 2021 - DoD MRAP Program:

This data is available in Forecast International's U.S. Defense Budget Forecast, a comprehensive analytical database containing historical and forecast budget figures, year-to-year funding comparisons, congressional budget markups, program justification documents, and much more.

Source: U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), Oshkosh Corporation,
and School of Public Policy - University of Maryland.

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